What should we be seeking in worship? Outside of the proscribed sacrifices and festivals in the Old Testament, the Bible does not offer a comprehensive and normative statement of what should be in a worship service. Strangely, beyond the command to keep the Sabbath, there is no apparent obligation in the Old Testament to attend a weekly worship service. Formal worship was strictly centered on the Temple. Given the Sabbath travel restrictions, it is highly unlikely the people worshipped on a weekly basis as we do. We do have example of private prayers (Hannah, David, Daniel), and private altars, (Jacob, Gideon). From the accounts of the temple, we also know that there was music and choirs.
Turning to the New Testament, its authors seem to consciously steer away for any specific instructions on how we are to worship. Temple worship is abolished, so all of the sacrificial rules and regulations are no more. We do know that congregations sang and prayed. Words were spoken, as either teaching or prophecy (see I Cor. 14: 26ff). Given Christ’s teaching (Matt. 5:23), confession was expected, and these meetings were regular. Revelation envisions worship in heaven as including prayer, singing, and offering of praise to God.
This leaves the question of Communion. Christ clearly commanded it, but how often are we to receive it? Weekly? Monthly? Quarterly? Since Christ’s death, resurrection, and ascension are the core of the Christian message, I believe it should be a part of the weekly service. Communion forms a visible and tangible representation of the message, and serves as bond of unity within the body, as we all partake, at the same time. Paul offers some specific guidance on how we are to partake of it (I Cor 1:17ff)), which again highlights its importance and centrality to Christian worship. Here again, Paul makes mention of the need for self-examination and confession, as a prerequisite for partaking.
So we have some sense of the basic ingredients of worship: Prayer, Praise, Song, Teaching, Confession, and Communion. How might these flow? Some of this is dependent on what we take to be the apex of worship. We know that the basic models suggest: Communion, Sermon, or Experience. I am not sure any of these are entirely adequate. The worship model depends too much on the state of mind or soul of the congregant. If I do not reach the desired state of worship, I do not really participate in the service, and thus the service fails. In the traditional Protestant model, if the minister mishandles Scripture, again, the service fails, or worse, commits blasphemy. The catholic model offers the advantage of offering every worshipper something that is not limited by any of the participants. But is that satisfactory for the focus of the entire service? I will consider that question next.